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Health care

    Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Pathogeny Caused by tubercle bacillus, which is able to enter any part of the human body such as the lungs, meninges, lymph gland, bones, intestines and genitals, with most damage occurring in the lungs. Of the forms of tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis (phthisis) is the most prevalent, constituting 90% of tuberculosis.
    Major cause Infected by pulmonary tuberculosis patients and by inhaling tubercle bacillus How is it transmitted? It is transmitted through air; if we assume the air is permeated with tubercle bacillus, once the air is inhaled, the bacteria should be stopped by the cilia in the nostrils. However, tubercle bacillus may sometimes enter our lungs to reproduce. Therefore, people who are in frequent contact with pulmonary tuberculosis patients are more susceptible to infection. For instance, the spatters that contains tubercle bacillus coming from the nose or mouth of the patient through sneezing, coughing or talking/laughing loudly; kissing pulmonary tuberculosis patients, clothing/bedding of pulmonary tuberculosis patients - these are all contagions. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients should cover their nose and mouth with handkerchiefs when sneezing or coughing. They should also live in rooms with good ventilation and sufficient sunlight. By reducing the concentration of tubercle bacillus in the air, the chances of being infected will be minimized.
    Symptoms Cough, phlegm, unknown weariness, poor appetite, apathy to food and drinks, weight loss. For severe cases, symptoms such as afternoon hot flush, nighttime sweating, and even chest pain or coughing blood will occur.
    Simple screening test for pulmonary tuberculosis (Seven-point screening method)
    Coughing for more than two weeks (two points)
    Phlegm (two points)
    Chest pain (one point)
    Lack of appetite (one point)
    Weight loss (one point)
    If the score is more than five, seek immediate medical attention.
    Plans to cut the number of pulmonary tuberculosis patients by half within ten years
    The primary target is to reduce the current incident rate of 66.7 persons/100,000 persons to 34 persons/100,000 persons by 2015.
    1. Direct observation therapy (DOTS plan): This means that treatment supporters must supervise the patients by delivering the medicine, ensuring they take the medicine before leaving.
    2. Currently there are 260 treatment supporters nationwide who are responsible for supervising the patents in taking regular medication.
    3. From April 1, 2006, all AFB positive patients must partake in the direct observation therapy (DOTS plan). Who are more vulnerable to contracting pulmonary tuberculosis?
    1. People in closed, confined spaces such as casinos, drug dens, dance clubs, or those who live with non-open pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
    2. Cluster inhabitants: Homeless people, those staying at old age homes or in prison.
    3. Those with poor immune systems: Such as diabetic patients or drug addicts.
     Method for screening pulmonary tuberculosis
    1. Conduct regular x-ray inspection annually to discover pulmonary tuberculosis in advance.
    2. The most correct method is the AFB test. Those who cough and produce phlegm frequently or those with respiratory diseases should immediately send specimens of their phlegm to their local public health center, chronic disease prevention center or hospital for inspection; it is free of charge.
     The most important thing is to take a chest X-ray inspection.
    1. People who are 40 or older.
    2. Family or those who have come in contact with tuberculosis patients.
    3. Those who cough and produce phlegm often and those who have respiratory diseases.
    4. Those who have not taken the BCG vaccine and parents of students who tested positive for tubercle bacillus.
     Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis
    A Seek treatment at chronic disease prevention centers or with specialized doctors.
    B Obey the medication instructions by medical staff.
    C Chronic disease prevention centers offer the best medication.
    D Precautions for treatment:
    1. Home therapy is just as effective as hospitalization. There is no need for hospitalization except in unique circumstances.
    2. Ordinary patients may work normally.
    3. Return for reexaminations regularly.
    4. Do not take medication recklessly.
    5. Family care and assistance.
    6. Acceptance by society.
     If there are any questions, please call the Alian District Public Health Center for consultation.

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